Hydrogen storage is a key component for advancing hydrogen and fuel cell technology in applications such as stationary power, portable power, and transportation. Hydrogen has the highest energy per mass of any fuel. However, the low ambient temperature density results in low energy per unit volume, necessitating the development of advanced storage methods with the potential to increase energy density.
Hydrogen can be physically stored as a gas or liquid. Storing hydrogen as a gas typically requires high pressure tanks (5,000 to 10,000 psi [350 to 700 bar] tank pressure). Storing hydrogen as a liquid requires cryogenic temperatures because the boiling point of hydrogen at 1 atmosphere is -252.8°C. Hydrogen can also be stored on the surface of solids (by adsorption) or within solids (by absorption).
There are currently three main pathways for global hydrogen storage. high-pressure storage of gaseous hydrogen, cryogenic storage of liquid hydrogen, and solid-state storage of hydrogen (physisorption and chemical hydrides).
The development of high-pressure storage of gaseous hydrogen has a long history and an absolute market share in China. There are two main types of trailer and pipeline transportation of high pressure gas cylinders. In my country, we mainly use high-pressure gas cylinders with a hydrogen storage pressure of 20MPa. However, in recent years, 50MPa technology has been applied overseas. This technology has obvious advantages in hydrogen storage. In developing countries, pipeline transport generally has limited mileage. Up to 100 kilometers, compared with 5,000 kilometers of hydrogen pipelines in the world, the mileage is very small and there is still a lot of room for development.
However, its share has decreased due to the recent rise of cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage and transportation technology. This technology has been developed overseas for some time, and has achieved significant cost savings. Twentyth, the country has also developed rapidly in recent years, creating a large number of related enterprises. The future will also see rapid development as technology is implemented and costs are reduced.
Two of his other technologies, Solid Hydrogen Storage and Transport, and Liquid Organic Hydrogen Storage and Transport, are still in the demonstration stage and have not yet been applied on a large scale. Among them, solid-state materials in solid-state hydrogen storage and transport technology have many research directions, such as metal hydrides, nanomaterials, carbonaceous hydrogen storage materials, and coordination hydride hydrogen storage. Among them, the current landing products are mainly metal hydride materials, and the main products are fuel cell vehicles. Organic liquid hydrogen storage can be supplemented with related petroleum equipment, has a high hydrogen storage capacity, and has a lot of room for future development.